Facts everyone should know about India
Secretary of state, Edwin S.Montagu and the viceroy of India Lord Chelmsford wrote an inquiry report regarding participation of Indians and responsible government in India, this report was published in 1918, Report on Indian constitutional Reform.
This report served as the basis for the creation of the legislation.
The government of India Act 1919 was passed by the British Parliament
To increase participation of the Indians in the government of India.The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford.
The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929.
The Act provided a dual form of government (a “dyarchy”) for provinces.
Matters of administration were first divided between the centre and the provinces and then the provincial subjects were further bifurcated into transferred and reserved subjects.
The transferred subjects were to be administered by the governor with the help of ministers responsible to the legislative council composed mainly of elected members.
The Transferred subjects are:
(1) Education, (2) Libraries, (3) Museums, (4) Local Self-Government, (5) Medical Relief, (6) Public Health and Sanitation, (7) Agriculture, (8) Cooperative Societies, (9) Public Works, (10) Veterinary, (11) Fisheries, (12) Excise, (13) Industries, (14) Weights and Measure, (15) Public Entertainment, (16) Religion and Charitable Endowments, etc.
The reserved subjects were to remain the responsibility of the governor and his executive council which was not responsible to the legislature.
Governor got the power to override ministers and executive council.
The Reserved Subjects are:
(1) Land Revenue, (2) Famine Relief, (3) Justice, (4) Police, (5) Pensions, (6) Criminal Tribes, (7) Printing Presses, (8) Irrigation and Waterways, (9) Mines, (10) Factories, (11) Electricity, (12) Labour Welfare and Industrial Disputes, (13) Motor Vehicles